Vincent Willem van Gogh
Netherlands 1853 – 1890 France (d. 37)
Dutch Post-Impressionist artist
Prof. Simon Carding from the Quadram Institute (previously known as the Institute of Food Research) and Norwich Medical School at the University of East Anglia, describes our current understanding of the human gut and its relationship with its human host and introduce the provocative proposal that gut microbes influence when, what and how often we eat and whether we stay healthy or succumb to disease. Video: Gut bacteria and mind control: to fix your brain, fix your gut!
There is a saying in Chinese medicine that "dung poison enters the blood, and all diseases rise." What this sentence says is that toxins in the intestine enter the bloodstream and cause various diseases.
There is evidence that many chronic metabolic diseases actually start in the gut. This has a lot to do with the different intestinal bacteria that exist in our digestive tract and the integrity of the intestinal lining.
There are many trillions of bacteria in the intestine, collectively referred to as "intestinal flora". Bacteria have brought diseases and disasters to humans for thousands of years, just as every organization has good people and bad people. What we do know is that the number and composition of intestinal bacteria can greatly affect our physical and mental health.
A large part of the toxins in the intestinal tract is caused by the imbalance of the flora.
Don't think that the imbalance of intestinal flora will only cause diarrhea, malnutrition, constipation and the like. Studies have found that intestinal bacteria can affect the health of the whole body. Cancer, diabetes, obesity, allergies, depression, etc. have never considered these diseases to be related to intestinal bacteria.
The toxin produced by the intestinal flora is a low-level dose, and there is no way to cause disease overnight. This change is imperceptible, it will keep you in a sub-healthy state, and hurt your body little by little until it is irreparable. This is the root cause of chronic diseases.
When the body lacks "normal flora"
- Diarrhea! After the normal intestinal flora is imbalanced, the resistance to Clostridium difficile is lost, which leads to the growth of Clostridium difficile, which in turn leads to diarrhea.
- Gastritis, stomach cancer, periodontitis! Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori), which has lost its natural enemies, grows in large numbers and has caused periodontitis, gastritis, gastric cancer in the past for a long time
- Bacterial vaginosis - (changes in the normal vaginal flora) various tumors of the female reproductive system are quietly breeding
- HIV - The vaginal microbiome can affect the risk of HIV infection. A special vaginal bacteria called Gardnerella explains the high HIV infection rate among South African women and strongly suggests that the vaginal microbiome affects the risk of HIV infection
- Liver diseases - Changes in the intestinal flora can cause liver damage through bacterial endotoxin activation of liver "Kupffer cells" and other pathways (viral, toxicological and metabolic abnormalities, etc.). Liver disease is often accompanied by an increase in enterobacteriaceae and a decrease in Bifidobacteria. Intestinal microecological imbalance can cause endotoxin production in patients through bacterial translocation.
- Obesity! More and more studies have shown that the interaction between gut microbes and host genotype or dietary changes is an important factor leading to obesity and related metabolic disorders.
- Type 2 diabetes! Scientists such as Pedeen have recently demonstrated that the gut microbial species Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus may affect serum metabolomics and induce insulin resistance.
- Autism, depression, Alzheimer's disease! The concept of "flora-gut-brain axis" is familiar to everyone. The Akkermaia muciniphila and Bifidobacterium bacteria of children with autism are significantly reduced. The levels of Enterobacteriaceae and Alipipes in patients with depression increased significantly, but Faecalibacterium levels decreased significantly.
By introducing healthier strains of bacteria, researchers have been able to treat behavior like depression, anxiety, and even autism
Scientists have found that toxins produced by two types of bacteria—E. coli and B. fragilis—combine in the colon to damage DNA
RA patients are more likely than healthy people to have several rare species of bacteria in their guts. In the a study, researchers transplanted a healthy strain of bacteria into mice with RA, and their symptoms improved. While the researchers aren’t sure why this approach works, they do believe the microbiome can stimulate the immune system to attack the body.
infection by C. difficile, a bacteria that causes diarrhea, stomach cramps, fever, and in severe cases, kidney failure. It often develops in people who have taken heavy-duty antibiotics that killed off the normal bacteria in their digestive tract allowing opportunistic bacteria an opportunity to flourish. Today Fecal transplants have a 90 percent success rate.
A 2017 study found that two types of bacteria are more common in MS patients, and the strains can cause cellular changes in healthy blood, increasing the likelihood of a dangerous autoimmune response, according to STAT News.
dietary fiber helps by nourishing gut bacteria that help influence insulin
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Fasting. In this study, researchers looked at fifty-eight patients with IBS and divided them into two groups. One group was given prescription meds and psychotherapy to reduce IBS symptoms, while the other group fasted for 10 days, drinking only water. The fasting group reported improvement in 7 of 10 symptoms.
Clinical and animal model studies have suggested that infections by many microorganisms, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), and mycoplasma contribute to the etiopathogenesis of RA (Table 1).
There are many types of lectin but one for Blood Group is B, in particular is very interesting.
The relationship between exposed galactose and N‐acetylglucosamine on IgG in Rhematoid Arthritis, JCA and SS was investigated. This was achieved using IgG isolated from serum where the levels of galactose and N‐acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) were detected using biotinylated lectins. Galactose and GlcNAc on IgG from patients with RA and JCA are inversely related, but in contrast, in SS, galactose expression on IgG decreased while GlcNAc expression remained similar to normal levels. Alterations in IgG glycosylation are closely associated with the development of adult and juvenile chronic arthritis and SS, but the changes involved are different in RA compared with SS, suggesting that the precise pattern of exposed sugars is associated with different rheumatological diseases.
1. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis
2. Mannan binding lectin in rheumatoid arthritis. A longitudinal study
3. .Characterization of changes in IgG associated oligosaccharide profiles in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis using fluorophore linked …
- K Martin, R Talukder, FC Hay, JS Axford - The Journal of rheumatology, 2001 - jrheum.org
The human intestinal microbiota is dominated by five phyla: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. In adults, more than 80% of the species belong to just two phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. (1)
The bacteria occupying the human gut have evolved unique strategies to thrive in their environment. Bacteroides organisms, which often comprise 25 to 50% of the human gut microbiota, derive nutrients from structurally diverse complex polysaccharides, commonly called dietary fibers. This ability requires an expansive genetic repertoire that is coordinately regulated to achieve expression of those genes dedicated to utilizing only those dietary fibers present in the environment.(2)
Your most abundant microbes:
Bacteroides abundance is usually associated with the consumption of animal fat and protein-rich diets
Bacteroides - Species from the genus Bacteroides alone constitute about 30% of all bacteria in the gut, suggesting that this genus is especially important in the functioning of the host.
organisms belonging to Bacteroidetes: Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, Cytophaga hutchinsonii, Cytophaga columnaris, Flavobacterium sp.
- Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, is an organism that produces enzymes not encoded by the human genome that give it the ability to break down various complex polysaccharides and ferment undigested food. The fermentation products of Bacteroides thetaiotamicron can be used by humans as a carbon and energy source.
- Bacteroidetes includes genera like: Bacteroides, Prevotella, Cytophaga, & Flavobacterium.
- Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Dehydrogenase (Ubiquinone)
- Lineage:cellular organisms; Bacteria; FCB group; Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group; Bacteroidetes; Bacteroidia; Bacteroidales; Rikenellaceae; Alistipes
- Ruminococcus is a probiotic that is found dominantly in healthy gut (Ma et al., 2018), and Oscillospira may relieve inflammation by utilizing host glycans as growth substrates (Konikoff & Gophna, 2016). (1)
- Prevotellaceae is a family in the phylum Bacteroidetes and is composed of four genera: Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Hallella, and Paraprevotella.
- An increase in Prevotella is linked to a high-fibre diet.
Prevotella spp. are members of the oral, vaginal, and gut microbiota and are often recovered from anaerobic infections of the respiratory tract. These infections include aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary empyema, and chronic otitis media and sinusitis. They have been isolated from abscesses and burns in the vicinity of the mouth, bites, paronychia, urinary tract infection, brain abscesses, osteomyelitis (a condition was described at least as early as the 300s BC by Hippocrates.) and bacteremia associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Prevotella spp. predominate in periodontal disease and periodontal abscesses.
- Prevotella copri correlates with enhanced susceptibility to arthritis
- Prevotella copri is strongly correlated with disease in new-onset untreated rheumatoid arthritis (NORA) patients (3)
- Increases in Prevotella abundance correlated with a reduction in Bacteroides and a loss of reportedly beneficial microbes (3)
- Further, colonization of mice revealed the ability of P. copri to dominate the intestinal microbiota and resulted in an increased sensitivity to chemically induced colitis. This work identifies a potential role for P. copri in the pathogenesis of RA (3)
- The presence of Prevotella in the human gastrointestinal tract is inversely correlated with Parkinson’s Disease.
Your most enriched microbes:
Alistipes - found in the large intestine
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon. Colitis may be acute and self-limited or long-term. It broadly fits into the category of digestive diseases. Colitis is the primary symptom before the onset of Autoimmune Diseases.(1), (2), (3)
Beneficial bacteria (probiotics)
- Prevent or improve diarrhea
(Probiotics help balance the intestinal flora and restore normal intestinal pH, alleviating the symptoms of diarrhea.)
- Relieve symptoms of lactose intolerance
(Lactobacillus can help the human body to break down lactose, relieve diarrhea, flatulence and other uncomfortable symptoms)
- Prevent reproductive system infections
(The Lactobacillus acidophilus in yogurt and Ricafor antibacterial spray can inhibit the reproduction of Candida albicans in the vagina.)
- Enhance human immunity
(There is a very developed immune system in the intestine. Probiotics can stimulate the immune function in the intestine to adjust the immune activity that is too low or too high to a normal state. The immune regulation effect of probiotics is also believed to be helpful. To fight cancer and inhibit allergic diseases.)
- Promote intestinal digestive system health
(Probiotics can inhibit the reproduction of harmful bacteria in the intestine, reduce toxins, and promote intestinal peristalsis, thereby improving intestinal function and improving bowel movements.)
- Lower serum cholesterol
(Probiotics can lower serum cholesterol levels, prevent diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity, and prevent osteoporosis)
- Help absorb nutrients
If you have a poor diet (eating too much takeaway food, not enough fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products, or you regularly drink too much alcohol) and do not exercise regularly, then your digestive bacteria may benefit from probiotic supplements , Provided that you have to eat all the time.
If you are healthy, supplementing with probiotics is likely to waste money. It is recommended that you use the money spent on probiotic supplements to buy and eat more fruits and vegetables.
A true food-based diet with a lot of prebiotic fiber is crucial, with the focus on reducing processed junk food.
A probiotic supplement may also be useful. Some studies have shown that probiotics can help reduce endotoxemia and inflammation.
Probiotic foods, such as active or active culture yogurt, kefir and sauerkraut, may also help.
At the end of the day, inflammation caused by bacterial endotoxins can be an unhealthy diet, the "missing link" between obesity and all chronic metabolic diseases that are harming millions of people.